Creating a Positive and Cooperative Work Environment

Originally published on  By Kristen Brady

In healthcare, cooperation is critical in order for patients to receive the best care possible. Although relationships between healthcare providers is normally positive, there are times when those relationships may be tense. There are many reasons why group dynamics in healthcare settings may seem off-balance and less than cooperative. In most cases, it is simply because one group in a healthcare setting is not aware of the difficulties faced by another. A doctor may not understand the day-to-day difficulties the nursing staff deals with while the nursing staff may not understand the difficulties of the dietary staff. It is up to those at the management level to address these group dynamics and create a positive working environment in order to provide patients with the best possible care available.

Intergroup Dynamics

The first step in determining the best way to promote a positive working environment in healthcare is to understand intergroup dynamics. Social identity plays a part in how groups work together. Research has shown that people derive self-esteem from the social groups they identify most with. In addition, identification with a particular group facilitates consistent behavior among group members. Because it is instinct for people to compare their own group more favorably than others, it is not unusual for healthcare groups to see their own issues as more complex than others and value that group’s contributions over others. Socialization can also be a factor in how groups relate to each other in healthcare. Because healthcare workers are trained somewhat differently, they may have difficulty understanding the requirements of other groups. Nurses are socialized into the nursing role in a healthcare setting while radiologists are socialized into a different role. This can cause difficulty in cross-socialization.

Improving Group Dynamics
There are ways that management can improve group dynamics and create a more positive atmosphere. It is important to note that communication problems among staff are often the symptom of an underlying problem. One option to address group dynamic and communication problems is through cross-discipline training. During cross-discipline training, nurses are taught methods for raising concerns with doctors who may have a tendency to ignore those concerns. Doctors are given listening skillsets that allow them to not only hear when a nurse expresses concerns, but address those concerns in a timely manner.

Understanding Boundaries
It is important to remember that, in the healthcare setting, groups may work together as a team, but each group has their own tasks that must be carried out. Group dynamics in healthcare work when all members of each group understand that they are working toward the shared purpose of treating patients. Although this may seem obvious, it is sometimes so obvious it is overlooked. Management should encourage group leaders to keep the purpose at the forefront during all interactions by talking about how each group links together to achieve the goal of providing excellent healthcare to each patient. Creating an understanding between groups of how important their contributions are to the benefit of patients is critical in developing a more cooperative workplace.


Create a Plan


In order to have a cohesive, cooperative and positive workplace, management must have a plan, a strategy that is designed to promote patient service. The strategy should include elements that have been proven to show success in team building. The strategy should address tasks that must be performed by each group during patient care. Most organizations understand how to document services needed and performed during patient care, but including those services as part of a strategic plan can make healthcare operations run much more smoothly. One of the most important elements that must be included in a strategic plan is the needs of each individual within the healthcare facility. Many healthcare organizations use annual appraisals to reinforce employee behavior, but this may not be enough. People need their efforts acknowledged. They want their triumphs recognized and their struggles addressed. People need positive feedback when they perform well and constructive feedback when they should improve. Finally, team leadership needs to be part of the strategy. Conflict management, group dynamic training and diversity is critical to the success of any healthcare organization strategic plan.

Conflict Resolution
How an organization handles conflict among staff members can demonstrate how cohesive and positive the workplace is. Conflict does not always manifest itself the same way throughout an organization. There are five identified styles of conflict management. Someone who is accommodating attempts to preserve harmony at all costs and may appear week or ineffective. Compromise is often a good way to resolve conflict, but this can lead to a reduction in patient care as staff feel as if they must make too many concessions to keep others happy. Avoidance describes those who will avoid conflict at all times. Many times, people who avoid conflict jeopardize patient care as they back down when someone of authority disagrees. Often this is combined with competition when someone of a higher rank forces an issue to resolution, even if that resolution is incorrect. The best type of conflict resolution is collaboration. This requires communication and discussion to come to a mutually agreeable solution such as an issue of patient safety that stretches resources. However, collaboration can be overused and management may spend significant time in lengthy discussions about trivial matters.

One of the best solutions to conflict is negotiation. Although it is similar to collaboration, negotiation allows each party to share their own needs and wants when it comes to patient care. It allows each person to voice concerns and make suggestions for how to resolve the dispute. It also allows power to be removed from the equation as most conflicts are more about power than the actual issue. This is especially true in a healthcare setting with its many different layers of responsibility. Negotiation also allows those involved in the conflict to develop their own solutions rather than involve management in every disagreement. In negotiation, no one “wins” and no one “loses,” so the patient benefits from increased levels of care.

Benefits of Conflict
Conflict in the healthcare setting is not without benefits. Conflict brings awareness to problems that may exist and can initiate organizational change. Successful management of conflict can improve morale and strengthen relationships among healthcare professionals. Failing to manage conflict, however, can have detrimental effects on an organization. There could be an atmosphere of misperceptions and bias with coworkers polarized due to unmanaged conflict. Issues may become blurred as the conflict moves away from the actual issue and differences could become magnified. Unmanaged conflict lowers morale, increases employee turnover and can damage meaningful professional relationships.

Interest-Based Bargaining
People develop their understanding of situations based on their experiences, background, education and situational specifics. These factors often create beliefs or positions on certain situations. Yet, when we want something, it is our interest that helps us achieve what we want. When we understand someone else’s interests, we often recognize ourselves in that person. Interest-based bargaining is can be used in negotiation as a way to address what creates one person’s desires. It allows the conflicting parties to step into each other’s shoes and develop an understanding of what motivates them to do what they do. It also allows each person to understand the other person’s values, something that is often at the core of conflict as they are hard to articulate. Helping staff develop the tools necessary to understand values and motivation can be an excellent way to manage conflict in a positive manner.

In the healthcare industry, the patient’s needs must come first. People who enter the field of healthcare do so because they want to help those who are sick or injured which is why it would seem obvious that the ultimate goal is to provide excellent patient service in a healthcare setting. Unfortunately, because group dynamics exist in all industries, especially in healthcare, conflict can arise between different groups as well as between individuals within each group. In order to fully address patient needs, management in a healthcare setting must address conflict resolution and group dynamics throughout their organization. With proper training, education and resources, healthcare staff can develop the skills necessary to work well together and manage conflict in the most positive way possible.


Leading Management Solutions helps medical practice leaders identify ways to improve operations to increase revenue, employee engagement, and patient satisfaction. Learn more about us at

About the Author:

Kristen Brady is the founder and owner of Kaboom Social Media, your social media marketing and content specialists! Follow her on Twitter: @kb54927


Emotional Intelligence Among Healthcare Leaders

Originally published on August 31, 2016 at By Anita Hardidat, Ph.D

Within the past several years, there has been a renewed interest in the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) since it can play a role regarding performance, competencies and overall outcomes in an organization. When leaders use their EI abilities, high quality care can be served to patients and there is an allowance to align with other employees in a positive and beneficial manner. In essence, the definition of emotional intelligence is looked at as an ability to recognize others and manage the emotions and actions within a person’s self.  In practical terms, when individuals are aware of their own emotions, this can drive the impact of other people.

In today’s society, the use of applicable EI is often accepted as a primary attribute of success among any field. Specifically, within health care, leaders are required to have intellectual capabilities, but if they go the extra mile and strive for interpersonal competency, performance levels may be impacted since emotional intelligence is associated with factors such as change tolerance, communication skills, time management, decision making, trust and accountability. If these concepts are not applied in a proper manner, there is a strong susceptibility for failure which can be detrimental for each individual that is involved.


Emotional intelligence if often looked at as a balance that occurs between the rational and emotional portion of the brain. With repeated training, the brain can generate new pathways in order to make the EI behaviors ultimate habits that can be used each day.  For example, it is beneficial for health care leaders to facilitate a strong sense of self awareness. This means that emotions should be recognized and then managed in a proper way.  Once this takes place, there is a need to have self-regulation. Although emotions may fluctuate on a daily basis, successful leaders are aware of potential ramifications. They understand how to manage impulses and how to maintain professional standards among the employees within an organization.  Upon successful self-regulation, staff members may feel a sense of trustworthiness and it is likely that they may take responsibility for their own actions as well. The idea of applicable social skills is another main factor that is associated with emotional intelligence. For any leader, there is an ability to influence others, but this can only be done when there are levels of proper communication, understanding and collaboration. Successful leaders build strong teams by using their own EI skills and they create a positive synergy where collective goals can be managed.

For beneficial effectiveness, leaders must understand how their emotions and actions impact the people that surround them on both a personal and professional level. For those individuals who use EI on a daily basis, he or she can work well with others and there is a strong likelihood that the level of relatability can increase as well. Furthermore, when employees feel valued, the level of success can increase tremendously as time progresses.

Leading Management Solutions helps medical practice leaders identify ways to improve operations to increase revenue, employee engagement, and patient satisfaction. Learn more about us at

About the Author:

Anita Haridat has her Ph.D in healthcare/business administration and her master’s degree in clinical nutrition. She has several publications in sources such as EGO Magazine, Natural Awakenings Magazine, Syosset Patch, Our USA Magazine and many more. Her passion for health and wellness has created multiple stepping stones for paving the way of creating a positive well being. Her first book can be found here:

A Ph.D Takes Your B.S to a Whole New Level: Survive Grad School with the Right Mentality



Managing Difficult Employees in Healthcare

Originally published on August 1, 2016 at  By Kristen Brady

There are difficult employees in every profession. However, a problem employee in healthcare can actually affect the patient care in an organization. As other staff members attempt to deal with an employee who is either difficult to work with or who has traits that other employees are unable to deal with, it is up to the manager to handle the situation. These tips can help healthcare managers deal with employees whose attitude, personality or work ethic is becoming a distraction in the workplace.

Everyone Can Be Difficult


The first thing to remember is that everyone can be difficult to work with at one point or another. An argument with a teenager or spouse just before they arrived at work can lead someone to be difficult during the work day. Stress at home or a heavy workload can make even the most easy going staff member snap at another sometimes. These are not the situations to be discussed, however. Problem employees are those who are chronically difficult to deal with. They argue their opinion over and over again or make decisions based on what benefits them rather than the team or the patient. Some may talk instead of listen while others may be disrespectful. In some cases, the behavior is a habit while others have developed the traits over time as a coping mechanism.


Four Types of Difficult Personalities


According to experts, there are four types of difficult personalities. The first is abrupt, domineering and arrogant. They use extreme aggression to get what they want and are not afraid to make a scene in public. The second is passive-aggressive. They often make negative remarks that they pass off as teasing. They often attempt to sabotage leaders and coworkers. The third is a constant complainer who whines and finds fault in everything. They feel it is their responsibility to complain in order to make things right, but they rarely offer solutions. The fourth is unresponsive and disengaged. They often shut down during conversations and avoid answering questions directly.


Managing Aggressive and Domineering Employees


The first step in managing an aggressive and domineering employee is to maintain composure. Aggressive people attempt to deliberately upset others so that they can take advantage by exploiting weaknesses. Although it may be difficult, the first step is to offer as little reaction as possible. Take a deep breath and count to ten before responding. If you reach ten and are still upset, take a time out by walking away in order to calm down. Tell the person that you will get back to them or to let you think about the discussion. Pick your battles as there are times dealing with an aggressive person is not worth your well-being or happiness. However, as a manager, allowing an aggressive person to continually show aggression in the workplace can undermine your authority. When you have to address their actions, approach them on their level and keep the conversation brief but targeted. Be sure to meet with them in private and not in front of other staff or patients. Clearly outline the impact of their behavior using specific examples. Be sure to treat them with respect and remain calm.


Benefits of Aggressive and Domineering Employees


Although aggressive and domineering employees can be difficult to work with, there are advantages to this type of personality type in the workplace. Domineering employees make excellent leaders, especially during a crisis. Their energy can help other employees stay focused and they may be more willing than others to take on new challenges. When discussing the actions of an aggressive person, be sure to point out their strengths. This could help them focus their energies on positive actions rather than negative ones.


Dealing with Passive-Aggressive Employees


A passive-aggressive employee has behaviors that appear to be passive but are actually directed and purposeful. The actions are intended to control others or assign a negative third-party perception so that they can avoid responsibility. It is sometimes difficult to recognize a passive-aggressive employee which makes them harder to control. Once you have identified that an employee is passive-aggressive, you must address their behavior directly. Be sure to focus on your own feelings and not the behavior. Never attack the character of a passive-aggressive employee and make sure you address the situation in private. Confront them about one behavior at a time rather than all at once. If they feel the need to retreat during the conversation, allow them to do so in a dignified manner. Set a time limit to meet with them as passive-aggressive employees have a tendency to let disagreements drag on. Be sure that the person understands that you care about them.


Passive-Aggressive Behavior in the Workplace


Unfortunately, there are no benefits to allowing a passive-aggressive person continue their behaviors in the workplace. In many cases, the passive-aggressive person has developed the behaviors because they have no insight into themselves. When confronted, they feel they are treated unfairly as they may not even realize they are angry and resentful. They tend to procrastinate and are very resistant to change. They have fragile egos and do not handle any form of criticism well. They withhold information about how they feel. When an employee demonstrates passive-aggressive behavior, it must be addressed quickly and efficiently in order to prevent significant damage to morale.


Dealing with a Constantly Complaining Employee


The constant complainer is a fountain of complaints in the workplace. In most cases, complainers can be ignored. Eventually, constant complaints will lead to a confrontation with either management or another employee. The first step to address constant complainers is to schedule a meeting in a private location. Set a time limit of no more than 15 minutes. From the beginning, express empathy. Often, constant complainers simply want to know they are heard. Show appreciation for them bringing the issue to your attention, but make no judgment on whether the complaints are valid. Do not try to convince them that the problems they see are not really an issue as you will not change their mind. Ask them to provide you with some solutions to the problem. If they are complaining about a co-worker, require them to deal directly with the other person. If they cannot without intervention, offer to mediate a meeting between the two of them. Ask if the complainer wants your opinion. In most cases, they will not. They simply want to be heard.


Benefits of Chronic Complainers


Although there are those who simply complain to be heard, chronic complainers can also draw attention to issues within an organization that management may be missing. Pay attention when people complain, even those who seem to complain about everything, as there may be some underlying truth to their complaints. By asking them to provide solutions, you will also learn whether their complaint has merit. If there is no valid solution, the complaint may not be valid.


Dealing with Unresponsive Employees


Disengaged and unresponsive employees have a lack of enthusiasm or commitment to the workplace. They basically “put in time” during each shift with no excitement or passion for their job. Disengagement is a growing problem in the workplace, especially among healthcare workers who are being pulled in many different directions. If you suspect an employee is disengaged, schedule a private meeting and specifically ask if there is a problem. Skip the small talk and get to the point immediately. Explain that they appear to be disinterested in patient care or another aspect of their job and ask if there is a problem. Listen and then confirm what they say to you. Repeat what they say in order to clarify that you heard them. Don’t pressure them to talk. One of the best questions to ask is “If this problem were solved today, how would your work performance change?” If the employee answers with confidence, they are willing to repair the situation. If they do not, they may be in the wrong position. End the meeting with a commitment to action and follow-up with written documentation of what that action will be.


Engagement and Happiness

It is important to understand that engagement and happiness are two different things. An employee who is engaged is invested in the organization. By determining what it is that is making the employee disengaged, you may be able to identify larger problems in the organization that need addressing as well.

Every manager will have to deal with a difficult employee at some point. Understanding the different types of difficult employees can help you learn the best way to manage them effectively, creating a better working environment for management and staff alike.

Leading Management Solutions helps medical practice leaders identify ways to improve operations to increase revenue, employee engagement, and patient satisfaction. Learn more about us at

About the Author:


Kristen Brady is the founder and owner of Kaboom Social Media, your social media marketing and content specialists! Follow her on Twitter: @kb54927


Management Styles for Different Personality Types

Originally published on July 15, 2016 at  By Kristen Brady

Leading a team to success is the sign of a good manager. However, not every manager has the same management style. What may be even more surprising is that one manager may not have one leadership style as a good manager understands that management styles need to be mixed and matched in order to get the most out of their team members. They also understand that a management style that works with one employee may not work with another as each personality styles needs a different type of leadership.


Charismatic Management


A charismatic manager is able to influence others through the power of personality. They are often energetic and inspire passion in others by demonstrating their own. In some instances, a charismatic manager may seem to believe more in their own abilities than the team, but they still keep the team’s best interest in mind. Charismatic managers have the ability to expand a healthcare organization’s position in the market and improve morale in a team. A charismatic leader works best when an employee is introverted but wants their ideas heard. They have the ability to listen and make other members of the group feel heard. Employees who need reassurance and support are often best suited to working with a charismatic manager.


Innovative Management


An innovative leader often thinks outside the box. They are able to see the entire situation and develop solutions that are not what most people would be unable to see. They bring new, innovative ideas to the table and expect those ideas to be put into motion. An innovative leader is not afraid to take risks and, if they do fail, they see it as a learning experience. They are also more likely to listen to the ideas of others and implement those that may seem farfetched to some of the group. Employees who also enjoy thinking outside the box work well with an innovative manager. Those who enjoy spending hours in brainstorming sessions or who believe that the best ideas are those that seem outrageous or silly will thrive under an innovative management style.


Command and Control Management


Command and control managers appear to be rigid. They follow rules and expect others to do the same. When there is an urgency to a decision, they make the decision with little discussion, a benefit in some circumstances such as those that involve safety problems. These types of leaders also do well when decisions are financial or legal. Command and control managers are able to meet deadlines that seem impossible, but they demand immediate compliance. They often employ interactions that are from the top down. Command and control management work best with employees who are extremely detail-oriented and work best with a logical objective. Employees who do not like to be interrupted work best with this type of management system. In some cases, employees who are working on a detailed project may become what is known as “duty-fulfillers” in that they are focused on the project at hand, even if they are not normally that type of personality. In those cases, managers who allow those employees to complete the tasks they need to complete without interruption will see more production from them. This type of leadership also works well with employees who are traditionalists. These are people who like to get things done but use a systematic, methodical method to reach goals. They like organization and straightforward instructions.


Relaxed Management


The complete opposite of command and control management, relaxed managers have a thorough understanding of what is happening but keep themselves from being directly involved. They trust others to do as they are expected to do but they monitor all aspects of the team, providing feedback on a regular basis. This type of management works well in remote settings when team members are in various locations. They also work well when there are multiple leaders but a project has a strict deadline. Employees who prefer to work with little direction do well under a relaxed management style. These types of employees cannot handle micromanagement and prefer to work at their own pace. However, they also need occasional feedback to let them know they are still on track, which is one of the traits of a relaxed management style.


Role Model Management


A role model manager sets high performance standards for themselves and expects their team to meet the same standards. They are not “do as I say, not as I do” managers but act in the same way they expect their team to act. They are able to embrace new projects and work quickly to achieve goals. They also work well when results are needed quickly and action must be taken immediately to achieve those goals. Employee who seem to be very grounded work well with role model management. They want to see someone modeling their own behavior. These types of employees are rarely absent or late for work and they expect their leadership to adhere to the same principles. They will also be outspoken about other people’s behavior if it does not match their own.


Behind-the-Scenes Management


A behind-the-scenes manager includes the entire team in the decision-making process. They provide the tools necessary for the team to succeed, but they stay out of the limelight. Instead, they give the team credit for any results. This type of management often occurs when the leader is elected by an organization, committee or community. They often create a positive culture and have teams with better morale as results are team-oriented. Employees who are conventional, grounded and enjoy contributing will work well with a behind-the-scenes manager. They often work best on their own and may be introverted. They are loyal, hardworking and committed to the tasks they are assigned, but they want recognition for their hard work.


Situational Management


A situational manager links the behavior of group members with their readiness to complete a project. They are directing and supportive but also work to empower and coach those on the team. They are best suited for teams that need refinement or reinvention. Situational managers can sometimes be unpredictable. Employees who are in tune with the emotional environment work well with situational managers. They enjoy two-way communication and the fact that a situational manager will get to know them as a person, not just as an employee. This type of personality develops strong loyalty to a manager and works harder due to that loyalty.

Transitional Management


A transitional manager expects the group to conform even when conformation may be uncomfortable. They expect everyone on the team to do their best and, like the role model manager, performs in the same manner they expect the team to perform. They often encourage innovative ideas and motivate through optimism, enthusiasm and commitment. This type of management style works best with a nurturer personality style. This is a group member who works hard to get along with others and often offers assistance in an understated way. They often volunteer for community activities and are very optimistic.


Throughout an organization, there may be many personality styles. In fact, each employee may exhibit different personality styles depending on the tasks they are performing. The same is true of management. The best leaders exhibit multiple management styles in order to get the best from each person they manage. This may mean changing leadership styles several times a day or even several times an hour, depending on the task at hand. By adjusting leadership styles to meet personality styles, organizations see better morale and less turnover than those that retain the same management style for all staff members. By learning the personality style of those being managed, a good leader can achieve much more than those who simply use the same management style for everyone.


Leading Management Solutions helps medical practice leaders identify ways to improve operations to increase revenue, employee engagement, and patient satisfaction. Learn more about us at


About the Author:


Kristen Brady is the founder and owner of Kaboom Social Media, your social media marketing and content specialists! Follow her on Twitter: @kb54927


Job Satisfaction: More Than Just Financial Compensation

Originally published on June 1, 2016 at By Sonda Eunus, MHA

Most of us spend more time at work than we do at home, and more time with our coworkers than with our friends and families. For this reason, our job greatly influences all aspects of our life. Any job is better than no job; or is it? Many studies have been done that have linked high levels of work-related stress with depression and anxiety. Some jobs are more likely than others to cause negative feelings. Jobs and careers that expose the ugly sides of people tend to lead to higher stress and depression—these include judges, lawyers, police officers, etc (Worth, 2010). Additionally, physicians, nurses, and others, working in the medical field who witness death and illness on an everyday basis also tend to experience work-related sadness and discomfort. However, all jobs and professions also have their own pros and cons. The culture of the organization counts a lot, and can either encourage creativity and growth in employees, or discourage them and leave them feeling inadequate and unappreciated.

Job satisfaction has been said to stem from a quality of work life that provides employees with a favorable work environment, rewards for achievements, job security, and career development opportunities. The concept of person-situation fit is greatly related to job satisfaction, which states that when a person’s beliefs and goals are similar to the values of their organization, they will experience greater job satisfaction. Additionally, when these individual and organizational goals are aligned, the employee will perform better and, ideally, get praised and rewarded for her performance—which will only increase job satisfaction even more (Olsen, Maple & Stage, 1995). Additionally, when a person truly enjoys what she does for a living, she will naturally perform better and be more motivated to work harder in order to achieve career goals and further her knowledge and skill set.

Famous American psychologist Abraham Maslow, in his hierarchy of needs theory, postulated that a person’s basic needs, such as food and housing, must be met before higher-level needs can be addressed, such as self-actualization. Similarly, psychologist Fredrick Herzberg posited that motivation can be broken down into two factors: motivators and hygienes. Hygienes are lower-level needs that must first be met to inspire motivation, and in terms of job satisfaction these hygienes represent factors such as supervision, salary, work environment, and work relationships. These factors do not directly promote job satisfaction; however, the lack or inadequacy of these factors, do cause job dissatisfaction. Motivators, on the other hand, inspire motivation and effort, and consequently job satisfaction and self-actualization. Such motivators include responsibility, achievement, recognition, promotion, and various intrinsic values (Mind Tools, 2016). For women especially, work-life balance is extremely important. As the primary caregivers for their children, many women struggle to keep up with both their career obligations and their motherly duties. For this reason many women are at a disadvantage when competing with men for prestigious and coveted positions. A job that requires women to work excessive amounts of hours and neglect their personal and motherly responsibilities will undoubtedly lead to job dissatisfaction or resignation—regardless of the pay, work environment, or benefits that may be offered.

Contrary to popular belief, financial compensation is not the main factor that determines an employees’ job satisfaction. Feeling at home at work—experiencing person-situation fit—will greatly boost an employee’s satisfaction at work, and will motivate that person to come to work every day and to work to their full potential. Additionally, competent managers should be available to properly train and assist the employee to achieve superior performance, and praise that employee for their progress and achievement. Everyone wants to feel that their work is being noticed and appreciated. Employees also want to know that there is opportunity for advancement, and many good employees have left their jobs simply because they have capped out their growth potential at that organization. Most importantly, every employee should feel that their work is making a difference and that they are progressing in life. When all of these factors are present, employees will experience greater job satisfaction and will in return work to their fullest potential to promote the growth and success of their organization.


Leading Management Solutions helps medical practice leaders identify ways to improve operations to increase revenue, employee engagement, and patient satisfaction. Learn more about us at

About the Author:

Sonda Eunus is the Founder and CEO of Leading Management Solutions, a healthcare management consulting company ( Along with a team of experienced and knowledgeable consultants, she works with healthcare practice managers to improve practice operations, train employees, increase practice revenue, and much more. She holds a Masters in Healthcare Management and a BA in Psychology.



Worth, T. (2010). Why your job is making you depressed. CNN. Retrieved from:

Herzberg’s motivators and hygiene factors. (2016) Mind Tools. Retrieved from:

Maple, S. A., Olsen, D., Stage, F. (1995). Women and minority faculty job satisfaction: professional role interests, professional satisfactions, and institutional fit. Journal of Higher Education, 66(3), 267-293.